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26 September 2014

FALKLANDS WAR : The Plan of Argentinean Military Junta

Paperback - Second Edition

   Considering the political and military aspects as stated above, the strategy planned by Argentine in “seizing back Falklands” from British seemed to be logical. At first, the invasion plan to Falklands and South Georgia would be executed by Argentine between the months of July to October 1982. Its considerations were as follows:

   First, to reach the moment before the 150 Years Anniversary” of ownership of Falkland by British that would be celebrated in the month of March 1983. This was to avoid the British nationalism spirit and also the arising spirit to defend Falklands among the Falkland people.

  Second, from July to October is a winter season in southern hemisphere (including Argentine and Falklands). Under such cold season condition, Argentine calculated that British would not have any ability to respond to its invasion quickly.

   Third, the military junta got the information that HMS. Endurance, the only ship of Royal Navy assigned to protect the Falkland Islands would be non-activated / withdrawn back to England. Galtieri interpreted such matter as a “signal” of British’s lack of attention to its colonies in South Atlantic.

   Fourth, at the latest of July 1982, the Argentine Navy would have received the major parts of weaponry purchased from France, intentionally prepared for the said invasion plan.

   As already been known, in 1978 USA carried out embargo on military equipment against Argentine. This made Argentine unable to maintain the condition of its Skyhawks fighter planes.

   Therefore, Argentine purchased the weaponry equipment from France, either the Super Etendards planes or air-to-surface AM-39 Exocet, of the latest version of surface-to-surface MM-38 Exocet. The main characteristic of AM 39 Exocet, after being launched, it would slide down till the elevation of 6 feet above the sea surface, then it would fly at the speed of reaching almost Mach 1 towards the target.. its range reached nearly 35 miles, more superior than its previous version which was able to reach the range of 26 miles. As planned, in April 1982, Argentina had already got at least five missiles of that type, and in June it would get more.

   The invasion plan to Falklands had been orderly organized, however it was not accomplished properly.The chaos due to the domestic political situation forced the military junta to accelerate its invasion plan, four months earlier than the original schedule. In March 1982, demonstration and protests against the government became bigger and bigger.

   This was a warning for the military junta upon its legitimacy in the eyes of Argentinean people. The case of Davidoff’s dispute with HMS. Endurance in South Georgia made the situation hotter. The Argentinean military junta did not see any other alternative, and it even considered the Davidoff’s dispute as a strong excuse for the plan already been prepared before.

   This subject was proven by a document of conversation record between General Galtieri and President Ronald Reagan one afternoon before the Argentinean military invasion to Falklands. Galtieri said, “British has threatened the Argentinean people who legally works in South Georgia, and it is the duty of the Argentinean Government to protect its people".

   The invasion of Argentine to Falklands started on April 2, 1982, It was proven later on after the war was over that the acceleration of approximately for four months from the scheduled plan was a fatal mistake for Argentine.

   The consideration of cold season and weather factors, which was formerly believed very much and then neglected really became a bumerang for Argentine. The consideration on the factors of season and weather were actually included in the Doctrine in the Sun Tzu’s Arts of War (500 BC), “The winner is the party utilizing the law of sky and earth”. Since there was no hindrance from the weather of winter season, and under the logical consideration that before entering winter in the month of July-October, the Falkland crisis should have been settled. 

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