## 26 April 2016

### THEORY OF THE VERY BEGINNING UNIVERSE BEFORE BIG BANG

By 1930, other cosmologists, including Eddington, Willem de Sitter, and Einstein, had concluded that the static (non-evolving) models of the universe they had worked on for many years were unsatisfactory. Furthermore, Edwin Hubble, using the world’s largest telescope at Mt. Wilson in California, had shown that the distant galaxies all appeared to be receding from us at speeds proportional to their distances. It was at this point that Lemaître drew Eddington’s attention to his earlier work, in which he had derived and explained the relation between the distance and the recession velocity of galaxies. Eddington at once called the attention of other cosmologists to Lemaître’s 1927 paper and arranged for the publication of an English translation. Together with Hubble’s observations, Lemaître’s paper convinced the majority of astronomers that the universe was indeed expanding, and this revolutionized the study of cosmology.

A year later, Lemaître explored the logical consequences of an expanding universe and boldly proposed that it must have originated at a finite point in time. If the universe is expanding, he reasoned, it was smaller in the past, and extrapolation back in time should lead to an epoch when all the matter in the universe was packed together in an extremely dense state. Appealing to the new quantum theory of matter, Lemaître argued that the physical universe was initially a single particle—the “primeval atom” as he called it—which disintegrated in an explosion, giving rise to space and time and the expansion of the universe that continues to this day. This idea marked the birth of what we now know as Big Bang cosmology. (George Lemaitre)

Theory of The Very Beginning Universe Before Big Bang

is the theory of Blank, Empty, like the secret in the story of Kung Fu Panda, and everything in the world is vibration.

Professor Ethan Siegel:The Biggest Question About The Beginning of Universe

George Lemaitre's primeval atom, where does it come from?

## 20 April 2016

### EKSPERIMEN IMAJINER TIDAK LOGIS DAN BISA MENYESATKAN

Albert Einstein dikenal sangat pandai membuat eksprimen pikiran atau eksperimen imajiner (Thought experiments), dan pertama kali membaca eksperimen imajinernya, orang pasti terkesan, atau mungkin tidak langsung mengerti karena untuk memahaminya kita 'dipaksa' untuk berpikir. Dua atau tiga kali membacanya barangkali kita baru paham apa yang dimaksud atau tujuannya.

## 8 April 2016

### Albert Einstein’s Thought Experiment and Equivalence Principle is Misleading

Thank you for following me. This website maybe  helpful for you. I hope you have relax time on it -

In search of black holes astrophysicists are relying on indirect observations. Only the measurement of the event horizon of a black hole directly would be a direct evidence. However nobody done it yet, so for now an existence of BH is a hypothesis

.
http://debunkingrelativity.com/2012/12/21/a-brief-journey-into-the-weird-sciences/

“This discovery also presents a puzzle for astrophysicists,” said Hawking. “The mass of each of the black holes are larger than expected for those formed by the gravitational collapse of a star — so how did both of these black holes become so massive?”

This question touches on one of the biggest mysteries surrounding black hole evolution. Currently, astronomers are having a hard time understanding how black holes grow to be so massive. On the one end of the scale, there are “stellar mass” black holes that form immediately after a massive star goes supernova and we also have an abundance of evidence for the existence of the supermassive behemoths that live in the centers of most galaxies. There is a disconnect, however.

If black holes grow by merging and consuming stellar matter, there should be evidence of black holes of all sizes. But “intermediate mass” black holes and black holes of a few dozen solar masses are astonishingly rare, throwing some black hole evolution theories into doubt.(http://news.discovery.com/space/hawking-gravitational-waves-could-revolutionize-astronomy-160216.htm )

Albert Einstein’s Thought Experiment and Equivalence Principle is Misleading

Lincoln Barnett, Universe and Dr.Eintein, London 1949,  page 69.

"This physicists are still in the elevator, but this time they really are in the empty space, far away from the attractive power of any celestial body.A cable is attached to the roof of the elevator; some supernatural force begins reeling in the cable; and the elevator travels "upward" with constant acceleration, i.e. progressively faster and faster. Again the men in the car have no idea where they are, and again they perform experiments to evaluate their situation. This time they notice that their feet press solidly against the floor come up beneath them.

If they release objects from their hands, the objects appear to "fall".If they toss object in a horizontal direction they do not move uniformly in a straight line, but describe a parabolic curve with respect to the floor.

And so the scientist, who have no idea that their windowless car actually is climbing through interstellar space, conclude that they are situated in quite ordinary circumstances in a stationary room rigidly attached to the earth and affected in normal measure by the force of gravity. There is no way for them to tell whether they are at rest in a gravitational field or ascending with constant acceleration through outer space where there is no gravity at all.

Lincoln Barnett, Universe and Dr.Eintein, London 1949,  page 70.

So Einstein's Law of Gravitation contain nothing about force. It describes the behavior of objects in a gravitational field - the planets, for example - not in terms "attraction" but simply in the terms of the paths they follow. To Einstein, gravitation is simply part of inertia; the movements of stars and the planets arise from their inherent inertia; and the courses they follow are determined by the metric properties of space -- or, more properly speaking, the metric properties of the space-time continum.

(Universe and Dr.Eintein, Lincoln Barnett, London 1949,  page 69 - 72).

Einstein’s thought experiment mentioned above describe three events that become the objects of observation in the elevator :
1. They notice that their feet press solidly against the floor come up beneath them.
2. If they release objects from their hands, the objects appear to "fall".
3.. If they toss object in a horizontal direction they do not move uniformly in a straight line, but describe a parabolic curve with respect to the floor.

From these three events in the elevator ,  an  observer outside the elevators conlude  that gravity is nothing about force. Furthermore describes the behavior of objects in a gravitational field - the planets, for example - not in terms "attraction" but simply in the terms of the paths they follow.

The thought experiment mentioned above is incorrect.  Three objects of observations  do not fully describe the theory of gravity, namely can not describe at least two other events that caused by the force of gravity:

1. The celestial bodies in orbit, for example, the orbiting of the planets around the Sun.

2. The occurrence of tide-low tide caused by the attraction of the moon.

Of course it will be very difficult to illustrate two things mentioned above in the elevator. What could be described in the elevator is only related to objects that have weight and mass. Therefore, the thought experiments mentioned above is incomprehensive, illogical, and can be misleading.

Actually, thought experiments can be made to obtain the result they wanted to get. Albert Einstein made a mistake in his thought experiments.

Why the Equivalence Principle is False?

The Equivalence Principle proposed by Albert Einstein that underlying of his theory of relativity, was concluded by the method of inductive reasoning from his thought experiment, but special events as a reference is incomplete that caused by not in single ekxperiment (incomprehensive). Therefore the equivalence pinciple is false.and misleading.

Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation first enabled an explanation of why there were generally two tides a day, not one, and offered hope for detailed understanding. How about Enstein's general relativity on tide-low tide??.

Contradiction Between the Special and General Theory of Relativity

The most contradiction between Special and General Relativity Theory is about the existing aether. In special relativity Einstein didn’i believe that  aether dexist, and in this case he agrees with Michelson-Morley experiments. But in general relativity says that aether exist. Ironiccaly,  many of physicist who believe in general relativity ignored the existing of aether.

Einstein sometimes used the word aether for the gravitational field within general relativity, but this terminology never gained widespread support.

The standard model does not include an explanation of gravity, which most scientists believe is best described by general relativity theory. This theory claims that gravity is not a force that propagates across space but results from masses distorting the ‘fabric of spacetime’ in their vicinity in some mysterious way. Since ‘curved spacetime’ is a geometrical abstraction, relativity theory is merely a mathematical model and does not provide a realistic understanding of gravity. (David Pratt, The Farce of Modern Physics, Januari 2008)

Tesla published a prepared statement on his 81st birthday (July 10, 1937) critiquing Albert Einstein's theory of relativity. The following is a portion of that statement:

"... Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curving of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies, and producing the opposite effects, straightening out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible - But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for the motions of the bodies as observed, and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena." (peswiki.com)

Sebabnya: karena teori gravitasi Tesla mempersyaratkan adanya aether, walaupun keberadaan aether tidak bisa dibuktikan/tidak terdeteksi oleh peralatan deteksi manusia modern.Keberadaan aether yang tidak terdeteksi pertama kali disampaikan oleh Aristoteles pada abad sebelum masehi, kemudian dipopulerkan oleh filsuf Perancis Rene Descartes, ke dua pemikir besar itu percaya adanya Tuhan. Ke duanya adalah orang beriman kuat.

Dengan mengakui adanya aether yang tidak terdeteksi berarti mengakui adanya Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa.

Teori gravitasi Albert Einstein -Relativitas Umum - juga mempersyaratkan adanya aether. Apakah Einstein juga mengakui adanya Tuhan Yang Maha Esa ?

Persisnya tidak. Tetapi Einstein bukan seorang atheis. Einstein tidak percaya adanya Tuhan yang bisa memberi ganjaran dan hukuman, istilah populernya tidak percaya Personal God. Tetapi Einstein percaya adanya Tuhan versi Tuhannya filsuf Spinoza, Spinoza adalah filsuf Yahudi yang diusir oleh kaumnya keluar dari tanah kelahirannya, kemudian menetap di Eropa. Kepercayaan Spinoza di kemudian dari dikenal dengan sebutan Deisme. Kepercayaan Einstein adalah Deisme, yaitu percaya adanya Kecerdasan Yang Tertinggi atau Super Intelligence.

Bedanya dengan agama:

1. Agama berdasarkan kitab suci dan memiliki cara-cara peribadatan (syariat) sesuai yang ditentukan dalam kitab suci itu.

2.Kepercayaan, misalnya Deisme, kepercayaan berdasarkan akal pikiran semata dan tidak memiliki cara-cara peribadatan.

Kembali menjawab pertanyaan mengapa teori Einstein yang dipopulerkan?

Sebab dalam teorinya sebelumnya - teori relativitas khusus (1905) - Einstein mengumumkan agar mengabaikan/lupakan adanya aether. Dalam teorinya berikutnya - teori relativitas umum (1915) - pada awalnya juga mengabaikan adanya aether. Namun setelah tahun 1919 Einstein menyadari bahwa tidak mungkin adanya warped space tanpa adanya aether. Sehingga baru pada tahun 1920 Albert Einstein mengakui bahwa aether itu 'harus' ada. General Relativity impossible without aether.

Namun ,,,,pengakuan Einstein pada tahun 1920 itu 'dianggap angin lalu' .......Mereka mengakui teori relativitas umum tapi tidak mengakui adanya aether, dan mereka berusaha menciptakan teori-teori baru untuk mengganti teori tentang aether, antara lain teori Dark Matter dan Dark Energy.

Berhasilkah mereka?? Sayang sekali tidak berhasil, dan dua teori itu sejak tahun 2000-an dianggap sebagai bagian dari The 9 Biggest Unsolved Mysteries in Physics,,,.....dan mulai ada yang mengatakan dua teori itu do not make sense.

"For sure, there are regions of space with far less matter — stars, gas, dust, and even dark matter — than average. In fact, there are other voids that are of comparable magnitude that have been discovered since. One could cause this effect by a large region that was completely empty of galaxies, which is the “hole in the Universe” option that many reporters (and, ahem, press releases) flock to. But it could also be caused by something far less spectacular: a minor underdensity over a larger volume/longer slice of the Universe. Until we do a dedicated, 3D cosmic map (using spectroscopy to verify the redshift of the observed galaxies) over the region of interest, we won’t know for certain how these galaxies are distributed. But as far as what you’ve heard, there may not be an interesting void there at all, much less a region with no matter of any type." (Is This Actually A Hole In The Universe?-ForbesCom)

Why all the galaxies and stars near the hole do not follow the curved path of the hole? A hole in the universe as proof that in reality there is no such thing as warped space. A very big hole in the universe truly a confirmation by the universe itself / self-proving that the general relativity theory and big bang theory  was wrong.

There’s basically a hole in the universe -- a region where there’s much less matter than there should be. And we don’t know why it’s there.

http://www.alternativephysics.org/book/GRexperiments.htm

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/12194757/Black-hole-emitted-red-flashes-with-power-of-1000-suns-study-reveals.html

http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/2011/04/20/how-gravitational-lensing-show/

In the beginning .......
In 1916, Albert Einstein published a paper using general relativity to predict gravitatinal waves - a ripples in the fabric of space-time resulting from the most violent phenomena in our distant universe. ......

The present ,,,,,
At this point in our NSF strongly I thing most of us know what happened, and I do not want to dwell on the discovery here. I leave it to my colleagues to discuss the events of Sebtember 14, 2015, a mere four days after the start-up of AdvLIGO. That date marks the first direct detection of a gravitational waves, resulting, remarkably, from the collision and merger of two black holes approxiamately 1.3 billion years ago. It has taken that long for the signal to propagate to the detectors in Livingston, Lousiana and Hanford, Washington and produce "chirp", at 100 millisecond transient signal that opened a new window on the universe.

The Future .....
The discovery in Sebtember is a beginning, not an end. ......

In summary ...
Mr.Chairman, this historic detection of gravitational waves by LIGO illustrates the importance and singular role of NSF. ....
This conclude my testimony and I will be pleased to answer any question.

(Testimony of Dr.F.Fleming Crim, Assistant Director Math and Physical Sciences - Directorate National Science Foundation, on Unlocking the Secrets of the Universe Gravitational Waves, February 24, 2016, http://science.house.gov)

### LIGO Team Testifies at US Congress on the Discovery

24 February 2016 -- As a follow-up to the announcement of LIGO's first observation of gravitational waves, the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology has asked LIGO Scientific Collaboration members to testify on the discovery, its meaning for science and society, and what the future may hold. LSC members to testify at the Full House Committee Hearing were the LIGO Lab Executive Director David Reitze, the LSC Spokesperson Gabriela Gonzalez, and the LIGO MIT Director David Shoemaker. Details at house.gov.
Watch the hearing below:
- See more at: http://ligo.org/news/#sthash.f2NPd2Jy.dpuf
On Feb 24, 2016, LIGO members testified at US Congress on the discovery of gravitational waves. Left to right: Assistant Director of the NSF's Directorate of Mathematical and Physical Sciences Dr. Fleming Crim, LIGO Lab Director Dr. David Reitze, LSC Spokesperson Dr. Gabriela Gonzalez, LIGO MIT Director Dr. David Shoemaker. Image credit: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab. - See more at: http://ligo.org/news/#sthash.f2NPd2Jy.dpuf

LIGO Team Testifies at US Congress on the Discovery

24 February 2016 -- As a follow-up to the announcement of LIGO's first observation of gravitational waves, the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology has asked LIGO Scientific Collaboration members to testify on the discovery, its meaning for science and society, and what the future may hold. LSC members to testify at the Full House Committee Hearing were the LIGO Lab Executive Director David Reitze, the LSC Spokesperson Gabriela Gonzalez, and the LIGO MIT Director David Shoemaker. Details at house.gov.

(http://ligo.org/news/)

### LIGO Team Testifies at US Congress on the Discovery

24 February 2016 -- As a follow-up to the announcement of LIGO's first observation of gravitational waves, the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology has asked LIGO Scientific Collaboration members to testify on the discovery, its meaning for science and society, and what the future may hold. LSC members to testify at the Full House Committee Hearing were the LIGO Lab Executive Director David Reitze, the LSC Spokesperson Gabriela Gonzalez, and the LIGO MIT Director David Shoemaker. Details at house.gov.
Watch the hearing below:
- See more at: http://ligo.org/news/#sthash.f2NPd2Jy.dpuf

"When Einstein predicted general relativity, who would have predicted that we'd use it every day when we use our cellphones?" he said. (General relativity provides an understanding how gravity influences the passing of time, and this information is necessary for GPS technology, which uses satellites that orbit further away from the gravitational pull of the Earth than people on the surface). - See more at: http://www.space.com/31922-gravitational-waves-detection-what-it-means.html#sthash.A1JNvkme.dpuf My Comment in: http://www.space.com/32232-big-breakthroughs-cannot-be-rushed.html

" The gravitational wave discovery is a beginning, not an end. It marks the birth of the new era in physics : the end of the 9 biggest unsolved mysteries in physics. Black holes do not exist, the Expanding Universe and Big Bang theory are not correct. Isaac Newton was right and Albert Einstein was wrong.

1.Einstein's proving method for his hypothesis the deflection of light by the Sun is not scientific and deeply wrong. The evidence in print on the book 'Universe and Dr.Einstein', Lincoln Barnett, London 1949,page 78-79, this book preface by Albert Einstein himself.

2.Einstein's thought experiments incomprehensive, illogical, and misleading.

3.The Equivalence Principle is false.

4.The truth of the deflection of light : is caused by refraction (astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction), not by gravity field of massive object /the Sun.

In astronomy, deflection of starlight is something very common cause by refraction.

5.Lensing cause by refraction, not gravity.

What is gravity? Gravity is the force that attracts two bodies toward each other, the force that causes apples to fall toward the ground and the planets to orbit the sun. The more massive an object is, the stronger its gravitational pull.(livescience).

In reality, the precise strength of Earth's gravity varies depending on location (wikipedia).

In general, gravity is the force due to the effects of well balance universe. There is no such thing as spacetime or warped space. Warped space do not make sense and misleading.Gravity is the real force to maintain the well balanced universe.

Where does Earth's gravity come from?

It is not impossible energy for Earth's gravity come from Earth's Radiation. In fact, Earth received energy in the form of radiation from the Sun. For the Earth to remain in balance the energy coming into and leaving the Earth must equal.

The new era of physics is the era to be honest in science.
"

My comment in:http://www.space.com/31922-gravitational-waves-detection-what-it-means.html

"Isaac Newton was right and Albert Einstein was wrong. Gravity is force. Where does the energy for earth's gravity come from? It is not impossible energy for Earth's gravity come from Earth's Radiation. In fact, Earth received energy in the form of radiation from the Sun, and for the Earth to remain in balance the energy coming into and leaving the Earth must equal.

Einstein's proving method for his hypothesis the deflection of light by the Sun is not scientific and deeply wrong. Please see on the book 'Unverse and Dr.Einstein', Lincoln Barnett, London 1949, page 78-79.

In Astronomy, the deflection of starlight is something very common cause by refraction - astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction -, not by gravity. Also in the case of lensing (gravity lensing?), lensing by refraction, not gravity.

In reality,there is no such as spacetime or warped space. Gravity is the force to maintain the well balance of the universe "

My comment in :http://www.space.com/31916-what-gravitational-waves-sound-like-video.html

"Einstein's manuscript 1916 predicted that two celestial bodies in orbit will generate invisible ripples in spacetime, not two celestial bodies collide. And not two black holes collide, the fact that Einstein is The Reluctant Father of Black Holes.

We can hear gravitational waves. We can hear the universe ? That sounds could not transmit through vacuum.

Can not accept the fact that general relativity was wrong, and always looking for arguments that are often inconsistent and funny,"

My comment in:http://www.nature.com/news/young-scientists-poised-to-ride-the-gravitational-wave-1.19383

"According Einstein's manuscript 1916, Einstein predicted that if two celestial bodies in orbit will generate invisible ripples in spacetime, not two objects/black holes collide. Two celestial bodies in orbit can not be assumed as two objects/black holes collide.
I think a new era of physics is the era to get the answers what wrong with modern physics, and why we still found the 9 biggest unsolved mysteries in physics. A new era is the era 'to be honest in science'.
I am author of ' Eclipse 1919 and the general relativity theory' and I found the evidence in print that says Einstein' proving method on his hypothesis the deflection of light by the Sun isn't scientific and deeply wrong. Please read decription of the evidence in : http://oejicoba.blogspot.co.id...
Please read more :Einstein's thought experiments and the equivalence principle is false, the end of the 9 biggest unsolved mysteries in physics, where does gravity come from, and about the truth of deflection of light."

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160218-gravitational-waves-kennefick-interview/

gravity as the effect of curves in “space-time”

In 1955, Nathan Rosen tried to argue that gravitational waves don’t carry any energy, so they’re just a formal mathematical construct with no real physical meaning.

Science isn't consensus, if it's concensus, it isn't science.

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20160302-black-hole-flash/

If gravitational waves are not affected by gravity lensing, then under some lines of sight the associated gamma ray bursts would arrive with different delays potentially smoothing the signal, or producing multiple signals if the paths are significantly different in length.
Have short gravity lensed gamma ray bursts been detected in the past, via signal smoothing or multiple signals?
Also what does the 0.4 second delay of the gamma ray burst provide in the way of information about the location/distance of the event?

Based on this thought experiment, Einstein concluded that gravity is not a force of attraction, for no such force is required. Instead, it is something quite different — a curvature in the fabric of space-time.( http://www.thestar.com/news/insight/2012/08/18/einstein_discovered_that_gravity_is_not_a_force_but_a_curvature)

In general relativity, clocks at a position with lower gravitational potential – such as in closer proximity to a planet – are found to be running more slowly.

So my point is that it isn't meaningful to ask how a gravitational force affects time, because there isn't any such thing as a gravitational force. What does affect time, or more precisely spacetime, is the presence of matter, and that produces the appearance of a gravitation force. Your question should really be "How can (the curvature of) time affect gravity?" i.e. exactly the reverse of what you asked!

Gravity is currently understood to be curvature of spacetime, so mathematically it's unambiguous why gravity should affect time. But to leave it at that would be cheating, no? So I'll try to give an explanation of why you'd intuitively expect gravity to affect time. This is called the Einstein Tower thought experiment. If you've seen the phenomenon of time dilation in special relativity before, you'll notice that the way time behaves depends a lot on how light behaves. It's not crucial you know this but the spirit of the following explanation is the same.

Let's assume for a moment that gravity doesn't affect light in any way. Suppose you create a photon with energy $E$ on the ground and fire it up to the top of a tower where this photon is converted into an equivalent mass $m=E/c^2$. This mass will fall back to the ground and once it reaches the ground it will have gained extra energy $mgh$ because it fell through the gravitational field. If you started with energy $E$, you end up with energy $$E'=E+mgh=E(1+gh/c^2)$$ So every time you do this, you create energy! Surely something is wrong -- it must've been our assumption that gravity doesn't affect light. The most obvious fix then is to assume that the photon lost energy as it climbed up the gravitational field and that its energy at the top is $$E_{top}=E(1+gh/c^2)^{-1}$$ This is (a first approximation to) the phenomenon of gravitational red shift where photons lose energy as they climb out of a gravitational field.

Now, if you remember that the photon frequency is related to its energy by $E=h\nu$, you'll see that the frequency (~$1/T$ which is the "internal clock" of a photon) obeys the same relation as above. This is indicative of gravity affecting time -- in fact it's immediately obvious that any clock based on the frequency of light will run at a slower rate higher up in the gravitational field.( )

Gravitational time dilation has been experimentally measured using atomic clocks on airplanes. The clocks aboard the airplanes were slightly faster than clocks on the ground. The effect is significant enough that the Global Positioning System's artificial satellites need to have their clocks corrected.

Additionally, time dilations due to height differences of less than 1 meter have been experimentally verified in the laboratory.

Gravitational time dilation has also been confirmed by the Pound–Rebka experiment, observations of the spectra of the white dwarf Sirius B, and experiments with time signals sent to and from Viking 1 Mars lander.(wikipedia)

“Different parts of the universe are moving at different rates,” deGrasse Tyson said, “and time has some relative aspects to it. For example, the GPS satellites, the clocks on them tick at a different rate than clocks on Earth’s surface because when you move far away from the source of gravity, your time speeds up.” (http://www.rawstory.com/2013/09/neil-degrasse-tyson-explains-how-gravity-affects-the-flow-of-time/ )

Clocks in a gravitational force.

When comparing a clock under the influence of gravitational forces with one very far from such influences it is found that the first clock is slow compared to the second. To see this consider the same clock we used in the Special Theory of Relativity. For this experiment, however, imagine that the clock is being accelerated upward, being pulled by a crane. The clock gives off a short light pulse which moves towards the mirror at the top of the box, at the same time the mirror recedes from the pulse with even increasing speed (since the box accelerates). Still the pulse eventually gets to the mirror where it is reflected, now it travels downward where the floor of the box is moving up also with ever increasing velocity.

On the trip up the distance covered by light is larger than the height of the box at rest, on the trip down the distance is smaller. A calculation shows that the whole distance covered in the trip by the pulse is larger than twice the height of the box, which is the distance covered by a light pulse when the clock is at rest.

Since light always travels at the same speed, it follows that the time it takes for the pulse to go the round trip is longer when accelerating than when at rest: clocks slow down whenever gravitational forces are present.

This has an amazing consequence: imagine a laser on the surface of a very massive and compact planet (so that the gravitational field is very strong). An experimenter on the planet times the interval between two crests of the laser light waves and gets, say, a millionth of a second. His clock , however, is slow with respect to the clock of an observer far away in deep space, this observer will find that the time between two crests is larger. This implies that the frequency of the laser is larger on the planet than in deep space: light leaving a region where gravity is strong reddens. This is called the gravitational red-shift

( http://physics.ucr.edu/~wudka/Physics7/Notes_www/node89.html)

The Speed of Light and the Index of Refraction

"Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light."
"Light always travels at the same speed."
Have you heard these statements before? They are often quoted as results of Einstein's theory of relativity. Unfortunately, these statements are somewhat misleading. Let's add a few words to them to clarify. "Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light in a vacuum." "Light in a vacuum always travels at the same speed."  Those additional three words in a vacuum are very important. A vacuum is a region with no matter in it. So a vacuum would not contain any dust particles (unlike a vacuum cleaner, which is generally full of dust particles). (http://www.rpi.edu/dept/phys/Dept2/APPhys1/optics/optics/node4.html )

Remember, it is not curved space, but the human mind which cannot comprehend infinity and eternity! ( http://www.freedomtek.org/en/texts/nikola_tesla_interview_1899.php)

In science fiction, space and time warps are a commonplace. They are used for rapid journeys around the galaxy, or for travel through time. But today's science fiction, is often tomorrow's science fact. So what are the chances for space and time warps. (http://www.hawking.org.uk/space-and-time-warps.html ).

Another piece of evidence is known as the time-delay experiment.  The mass of the Sun warps space near it, therefore light passing near the Sun is doesn’t travel in a perfectly straight line.  Instead it travels along a slightly curved path that is a bit longer.  This means light from a planet on the other side of the solar system from Earth reaches us a tiny bit later than we would otherwise expect.  The first measurement of this time delay was in the late 1960s by Irwin Shapiro.  Radio signals were bounced off Venus from Earth when the two planets were almost on opposite sides of the sun. The measured delay of the signals’ round trip was about 200 microseconds, just as predicted by general relativity.  This effect is now known as the Shapiro time delay, and it means the average speed of light (as determined by the travel time) is slightly slower than the (always constant) instantaneous speed of light. (http://www.universetoday.com/108740/how-we-know-gravity-is-not-just-a-force/ )

## 1 April 2016

### TIME-DELAY OF LIGHT CAUSED BY REFRACTION, NOT GRAVITY

Time-delay of light caused by refraction, not Gravity.
See Fig.above: Dlr (in red curve) is a litle bit longer than Dso (in white straight line)

Clocks in a gravitational force.

When comparing a clock under the influence of gravitational forces with one very far from such influences it is found that the first clock is slow compared to the second. To see this consider the same clock we used in the Special Theory of Relativity. For this experiment, however, imagine that the clock is being accelerated upward, being pulled by a crane. The clock gives off a short light pulse which moves towards the mirror at the top of the box, at the same time the mirror recedes from the pulse with even increasing speed (since the box accelerates). Still the pulse eventually gets to the mirror where it is reflected, now it travels downward where the floor of the box is moving up also with ever increasing velocity.

On the trip up the distance covered by light is larger than the height of the box at rest, on the trip down the distance is smaller. A calculation shows that the whole distance covered in the trip by the pulse is larger than twice the height of the box, which is the distance covered by a light pulse when the clock is at rest.

Since light always travels at the same speed, it follows that the time it takes for the pulse to go the round trip is longer when accelerating than when at rest: clocks slow down whenever gravitational forces are present.

This has an amazing consequence: imagine a laser on the surface of a very massive and compact planet (so that the gravitational field is very strong). An experimenter on the planet times the interval between two crests of the laser light waves and gets, say, a millionth of a second. His clock , however, is slow with respect to the clock of an observer far away in deep space, this observer will find that the time between two crests is larger. This implies that the frequency of the laser is larger on the planet than in deep space: light leaving a region where gravity is strong reddens. This is called the gravitational red-shift (see Fig. 7.9).

Figure 7.9:  The gravitational redshidft. Since clocks slow down in a strong gravitational field then light, whose oscillations can be used as clocks, will be shifter towards the red as it leaves a region where gravity is strong.

As for time dilation, the slowing down of clocks in the presence of gravitational forces affects all clocks, including biological ones. A twin trveling to a region where gravity is very strong will come back a younger than the twin left in a rocket in empty space. This is an effect on top of the one produced by time dilation due to the motion of the clocks. The gravitational forces required for a sizable effect, however, are enormous. So the twin will return younger...provided she survives.

(physics.ucr.edu).

"For this experiment, however, imagine that the clock is being accelerated upward, being pulled by a crane. The clock gives off a short light pulse which moves towards the mirror at the top of the box, at the same time the mirror recedes from the pulse with even increasing speed (since the box accelerates). Still the pulse eventually gets to the mirror where it is reflected, now it travels downward where the floor of the box is moving up also with ever increasing velocity.

On the trip up the distance covered by light is larger than the height of the box at rest, on the trip down the distance is smaller. A calculation shows that the whole distance covered in the trip by the pulse is larger than twice the height of the box, which is the distance covered by a light pulse when the clock is at rest.

Since light always travels at the same speed, it follows that the time it takes for the pulse to go the round trip is longer when accelerating than when at rest: clocks slow down whenever gravitational forces are present."

The thought experiment above is incorrect and misleading because it ignores the refraction of light. The speed of light will always be slowed when light passes through a layer of earth atmosphere.

"Since light always travels at the same speed,..."

This statement is misleading. Speed of light is not constant but slowing down causes by refraction. The time-delay of light cause by refraction, not gravity.

An example in the case of sunlight, please see picture below:

A'-B is a straight line light of apparent position of the Sun, and A - B is a curved path of  true position of the Sun.. A curved path A - B is a litle bit longer than A' - B.

GPS Doen't Need, Doen't Use, and Does't Prove Einstein's Theory of Special and General Relativity.

Einstein's general theory of relativity was totally wrong.

1.Einstein's thought experiments are incomprehensive, illogical, and misleading.

2.Einstein's equivalence principle is false.

3.General relativity inconsistent with Special relativity about the existing of an aether.

4.Special relativity and General relativity ignored the refraction of light, so:

5.The deflection of light by the Sun is misleading. The deflection of light is caused by refraction, i.e.astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction.

6.Gravitational redshift is misleading. Redshift and blueshift are caused by refraction, not gravity. When the celestial bodies become incasdescent as the temperature increases, they emit a red glow that we see as redshift. If the temperature continues to rise, the red glow turns to orange, then the yellow, and then the blue that we see as a blueshift, the blue glow then turns to white. The amount of radiant energy given off by such celestial bodies varied with wavelength and temperature. Such phenomena isn't Doppler effects. Thus, redshift isn't Doppler effect.

7.Gravitational lensing is false. Lensing is caused by refraction, not gravity.

8.There’s the Shapiro time delay. There’s gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is not correct. Because the revelation of universal law: 'the velocity of light is constant' (Special Reltivity) is misleading. Speed of light slowing down causes by refraction when the starlight passing through the Earth’s atmosphere.The time-delay of light caused by refraction, not gravity.

9.GPS doesn’t need, doesn’t use, and doesn't prove Einstein’s special and general theory of relativity.

a.By ignoring General Relativity, GPS is wrong by about a third of a nanometer here.  Since GPS is known to be accurate only to about 5cm (with full augmentation), and since even “post-mission measurements” claim only an accuracy of 1mm or so, the GR margin of error is well below those limits.  This is true even when light has to travel much further than the 30 million meters we gave it above.  It could go a million times further than that and still not impact the current accuracy.  That is why GR can be ignored in GPS.
(milesmathis.com/gps.pdf)

b.The GPS satellites use classical (Newtonian) relativistic principles to work. These are the same relativistic principles that make sense in the everyday world, that most people equate with 'common sense'. GPS calculates positions based on geometric principles. The atomic clocks on the satellites have their rates preset in order to match experimentally observed effects. No General Relativity is used or needed.( Analysis by Wandera)
c. Atomic clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth's surface. It is not caused by gravity, but by air density of atmosphere. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.(oejicoba.co.id)

10.Black holes do not exist, the expanding universe and the big bang theory is incorrect.

11.About gravitational waves Einstein was wrong.There are no such things as curved/warped space. Space-time just a mathematical model.There are no gravitational waves or ripples in space-time. Where does energy for gravitational waves come from? Gravitational waves don’t carry any energy, so they’re just a formal mathematical construct with no real physical meaning (Nathan Rosen, 1955). Gravity is a real force, there are exist gravity waves, not gravitational waves.In the Earth’s atmosphere, gravity waves are a mechanism for the transfer of momentum from the troposphere to the stratosphere.

12.Dark matter and dark energy do not make sense. This time 2016 is the end of the 9 biggest unsolved mysteries in physics, 8 of 9 unsolved mysteries are caused by the failure of general theory of relativity.

IN THIS TIME 2016 WE NEED RIPPLE:Revolution In Physics Post-LIGO Experiment

New Release, today Wednesday April 6, 2016

Discoveries 2016: Should we reshaped the Modern Physics?

Description

Albert Einstein was one of the greatest physicist.Therefore, it is hard to understand he made a mistake in his thought experiments-equivalence principle-moreover in his proving method to prove his hypothesis.In fact, we found something new.

Did you know, Einstein's thought experiments are incomprehensive,illogical, and misleading?

The equivalence principle is false, and Einstein's proving method for his hypothesis 'deflection of light by the Sun' isn't scientific and deeply wrong? Unfortunately, a revelation of universal law 'the velocity of light is constant' and gravitational redshifts also incorrect......Einstein's gravity was wrong, and Newton's gravity was correct.  But we know that our understanding of gravity is not complete. What is gravity? Gravity is not just something of a force that any two bodies in universe attract each other, but moreover, gravity is the force due to the effects of well balanced universe ..... .

Should we reshaped the modern physics?