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16 Agustus 2017


Figure 1: Mercury-Photo by NASA

Witness gravity’s quantum side in the lab: Physicists should rethink interference experiments to reveal whether or not general relativity follows classical theory, argue Chiara Marletto and Vlatko Vedral. (Nature, 11 July 2017)

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in orbit around a star or star system.
All planets on the planetary system revolving around the Sun due the force of gravity between the Sun and planets. They didn’t to get collide or fall toward the Sun due to the fact, there is no motion without a cause. There are also forces from planets and medium between them in the opposite direction. This phenomena can be pictured in the formula: 
Energy in =Energy out, and the result is a balance.
 Figure 2: All things in Universe is energy-Energy In = Energy Out

Think about it a bit. It’s an important formula. In fact, it’s the central concept to all planetary system. Suppose, then, we know Newton’s gravity predicted the planetary orbits so accurately, all planets follow an elliptical orbit, but should be taking into account deviation due to their distance from the Sun, and the gravitational pull of the other planets.

Why do the planets go around the Sun?

But now we still have the question of why anything orbits something else. The reasons are complicated but the first good explanation was provided by one of the greatest scientists ever, Isaac Newton, he is widely considered to be one of the most brilliant, important, and productive scientists ever to have lived.

Figure 3: The planets go around the Sun.This activity demonstrates not only how a planet can orbit the Sun, but also give a boost in speed to a passing spacecraft.

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0. In a stricter sense, it is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity greater than 0 and less than 1 (thus excluding the circular orbit). In a wider sense, it is a Kepler orbit with negative energy. This includes the radial elliptic orbit, with eccentricity equal to 1.

Figure 4: A small body in space orbits a large one (like a planet around the sun) along an elliptical path, with the large body being located at one of the ellipse foci.

Mercury’s orbit is the most eccentric

Scientists classify orbits by the shape that they trace through space. Scientists use the term “eccentricity” to explain how round or oblong the orbit is. The higher the eccentricity, the more “squished” the orbit appears.
Most astronomical objects orbit some body that it is more massive than it is. For example, the moon orbits the Earth, the Earth orbits the Sun, and the Sun orbits the galactic center. Each of these orbits take the form of an ellipse. Because these bodies do not travel in a perfect circle, they are not always the same distance from the center of their orbit or the object that they orbit. When an object is as close as it gets to the object it is orbiting, it is said to be at perihelion. By contrast, the farthest point of the ellipse from the body being orbited is called the aphelion. The orbiting object travels the fastest while it is close to the perihelion and slowest when it is at the aphelion.

Mercury speeds around the sun every 88 Earth days, traveling through space at nearly 112,000 mph (180,000 km/h), faster than any other planet. Its oval-shaped orbit is highly elliptical, taking Mercury as close as 29 million miles( 47 million km) and as far as 43 million miles (70 million km) from the sun. Mercury’s orbit experiences some of the most bizarre conditions.

Figure 5: Planets orbiting the Sun follow elliptical (oval) orbits that rotate gradually over time (apsidal precession). The eccentricity of this ellipse and the precession rate of the orbit are exaggerated for visualization. Most orbits in the Solar System have a much smaller eccentricity and precess at a much slower rate, making them nearly circular and stationary.

Perihelion and Aphelion data:

Perihelion is about 46,000,000 Km from the Sun, and Aphelion is about 69,800,000 Km.

Perihelion Venus is about 107,476,259 Km from the Sun, and Aphelion is about 108,942,109 Km.

Perihelion is about 147,100,000 Km from the Sun, and Aphelion is about 152,100,000 Km,

Perihelion is about 206,655,215 Km from the Sun and Aphelion is about 249,232,432 Km.

Wikipedia tells us, Newton derived an early theorem which attempted to explain apsidal precession. This theorem is historically notable, but it was never widely used and it proposed forces which have been found not to exist, making the theorem invalid. This theorem of revolving orbits remained largely unknown and undeveloped for over three centuries.

But, now we can explain the Sun’s energy fluctuation using Newton’s gravity. I am certain, Einstein’s gravity was totally wrong. General relativity is not valid. All general relativity claims can be explained without Einstein’s theory.

If general relativity (GR) is not valid, how can GR’s prediction to perihelion precission Mercury orbit ‘at best would be an approximation to the correct step forward’?

GR’s prediction , of an extra 43" per century, while having no mathematical or theoretical reasons.

Einstein’s Mercury orbit was challenged by several scientists including Dr. Thomas Van Flandern astronomer who worked at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington. Thomas Van Flandern asked a colleague at the University of Maryland, who as a young man had overlapped with Einstein at Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study, how in his opinion Einstein had arrived at the correct multiplier. This man said it was his impression that, “knowing the answer,” Einstein had “jiggered the arguments until they came out with the right value.”

Another scientist said:”He simply assumed the period of precession, since his number matched historical equations.”

The Sun’s fluctuations

The study in the year 2010 informs us that the Sun’s energy can rise and falls. The Sun’s fluctuations caused partial collapse of Earth’s atmosphere. From this study, triangle’s energy concept predicted that the Sun’s energy fluctuation as the cause of the unusual of Mercury’s orbit. In other words, the Sun’s energy fluctuation caused perihelion of Mercury doesn’t happen at the same place but moves slowly around the Sun(See Figure 5).

Let’s imagine Sun’s energy fluctuation such as the occurrence of waves in the ocean. Sea waves can rise and falls. Sometime sea waves will generate a kind of “explosion”, when the water mass collides and generate splashes at surface of the ocean. It goes on continuously and makes fluctuation of sea waves energy.

Figure 6: Sea waves splashes landscape ocean, just like the Sun’s energy fluctuation-Image WallpaperUp

Let’s pay an attention that the Mercury’s orbit is the most eccentric. The perihelion of Mercury doesn’t happen at the same place but moves slowly around the Sun.

Mercury is very close to the Sun and the gravitational pull of the Sun is very high, why doesn’t Mercury fall towards the Sun? Because, there are some forces from other planets and medium between them in opposite direction. The Sun’s fluctuation energy have an impact, and this is can be illustrated just like playing yo yo with the eccentric ways.

Figure 7: Playing Yo Yo-Image from DulMen’sClub

The initial location of Mercury before drifting towards the Sun under the influence of the spinning-gravitational effect of the Sun would determine how eccentric its orbit in accordance with its mass content. Orbits of all planets in solar system are eccentric even if the Earth’s orbit is not completely circular. As a matter of fact the Earth’s orbit is slightly eccentric. Then, it is not a big surprise that Mercury’s orbit is so eccentric, that’s because Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun.
When we compared to other distant planets, solar energy fluctuations have a major effect on Mercury. From this, it can be predicted that the planets furthest from the Sun, Neptune and dwarf planet Pluto; their orbits should be close to completely circular.

Figure 8: Neptune is the smallest eccentric.

This prediction matched with Neptune’s orbit, but may be doesn’t match with Pluto, for example, if we taking account the effect of gravitational pull from the other planets and Pluto’s mass.

Perihelion is about 4444.5 million Km from the Sun, and Aphelion is about 4545.7 million Km.

A physics professor said that given Einstein’s status as a popular icon, there are countless people who wish to prove him wrong, even among scientists with degrees to their names. Does that mean that one can not reveal Einstein’s fault, although the evidence and fact had been found that his theory is invalid?
I think, it doesn’t matter people wish to prove him wrong with the goal to their reputation or not, because many people will test the findings. If the findings are incorrect, it will further enhance Einstein’s status as a popular icon. If the findings are correct, it has very important for the future generations of scientists.


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