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14 Agustus 2017


Figure 1: Hubble Space Telescope Orbits

Gravitational Lensing?

For an observer in North latitudes, the best place in the sky is the constellation Ursa Major, the familiar Big Dipper. In addition to being very easy to spot, it has the advantage of being a circumpolar constellation. That is, at latitudes greater than 30 degrees North, it is visible in the night sky at any time of year.It contains three bright stars: Alioth and Alkaid in the handle, and Dubhe.Dubhe is the so-called ‘pointer star’, leading the eye in the direction of Polaris, the North star.

The handle of the Dipper forms a smooth curve. If this curve is continued for about the length of the Dipper, it lead very naturally to Arcturus, a bright and useful star. The same curve continued about an equal distance past Arcturus leads to Spica, equally bright and useful. These two stars are best seen in the spring sky.

Using binoculars or an optical telescope the constellation Ursa Major looks clearer. In 1979 the survey group found the optical phenomenon. Then, this optical phenomenon was claimed by some scientists as a phenomenon that has been predicted by Einstein in about the year 1936, namely gravitational lensing as the strong lensing. See Figure 2.

Figure 2: The strong lensing was discovered by Dennis Walsh, Bob Carswell, and Ray Weymann in 1979. They determined that the Twin Quasar Q0957+561A comprises two images of the same object.

The Jodrell Bank 966MHz survey was led by the survey group at Jodrell Bank. Walsh’s spectroscopic follow-up of quasars in this survey led to the 1979 discovery of the first example of a gravitational lens, B0957+561, using an optical telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory.

“We now consider the possibility that a gravitational lens is operating”.(D. Walsh, R. F. Carswell, R. J. Weymann, Nature 279, 381–384, 8 May 1979).
Another possibilities that a lensing is caused by refraction of light..

Observation data: 

Constellation: Ursa Major.
Right Ascension: 10 degrees 01 minutes and 20.99 sec.
Declination: +55 degrees 53 minutes 56.5 sec.

Let’s pay attention, the observation data mentions the right ascension and declination, but does not mention the altitude of the Ursa Major’s constellation. That’s right.

The reason is, they using telescope, and the purpose of telescope is not measuring the altitude of an object in the sky, but focusing light to get a better of image / photos.

Where is the location of Kitt Peak National Observatory?

The location of Kitt Peak National Observatory is about 56 miles (90 kilometers) southwest of central Tucson, Arizona, USA. Coordinate is about 31.95 degrees North and 111.60 degrees East. 

Here questions:

1. If the observation is done from another location, for instance from London, coordinate is 51.50 degrees North and 0.12 degrees East, can it produce the same image/photo?

Of course, it can’t.

Especially if the observation interval is very long, for example more than 10 years, or photos ‘made another time’.

2. If the observation is done from Hubble space telescope, can it produce the same image/photo?

Of course, it can’t.

We know that the first Hubble Space Telescope was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990.

Figure 3: Hubble as seen from Discovery during its second servicing mission -Wikipedia

Hubble space telescope orbits at altitude 600 Km above the Earth’s surface in the thermosphere. Altitude of thermosphere is about 80–640 Km, and above it is Exosphere of 640–9600 Km. Hubble space telescope also provides an image / photo of Ursa a Major’s constellation as a strong gravitational lensing. See the amazing image from Hubble space telescope on Figure 4 below.

Figure 4: New Hubble Space Telescope’s image of Ursa Major’s constellation, release date of observation 20 January 2014.

Seeing double. In this new Hublle image two objects are clearly visible, shining brightly. When they were first discovered in 1979, they were thought to be separate objects — however, astronomers soon realised that these twins are a little too identical! They are close together, lie at the same distance from us, and have surprisingly similar properties. The reason they are so similar is not some bizarre coincidence; they are in fact the same object.

This above article doesn’t explain the observation data about Right Ascension and Declination of the object at the time of observation

Are two photos shown on Figure 2 and Figure 4 is same, or there is a difference in appearance?
They are in fact the same photo! That is photo of Ursa Major’s constellation. Right Ascension is 10 degrees 01 minutes and 20.99 sec. Declination is +55 degrees 53 minutes 56.5 sec.

Make photos from Hubble space telescope at orbits in thermosphere is, in fact, very difficult to do. That is much easier to make photos from the Earth; because temperature of thermosphere which changes.

Figure 5: Temperature in the Thermosphere

Temperatures rise rapidly with altitude in the lower thermosphere. Somewhere above an altitude between 200 and 300 km (about 320 to 480 miles) the temperature stays pretty much constant across altitudes. However, the hottest temperature in the thermosphere varies a lot between day and night and between the minimum and maximum levels of solar activity during the Sun’s 11-year sunspot cycle. (windows2universe)
Two photos are same. Photo on Figure 2 is made in the year 1979, and photo on Figure 4 is made after 1990, how could it happen?

Of course, in this case, it can be said gravitational lensing is forcing a claims in science. We have a lot of evidence and data showing that Einstein’s equivalence principle, spacetime, and Einstein’s gravity is false. Actually, lensing can be explained without Einstein’s theory. Obviously, lensing is an optical phenomena, and nothing to do with gravity.

If image on Figure 4 as result of Hubble space telescope, that is a proof the image of the Hubble space telescope is not much different from the image of the telescopes on Earth.

Figure 6: Lensing-Image from HepUclAcUk

Lensing causes by refraction and diffraction of light, not gravity; that is something occurs like other optical phenomena (Halo,Twisted light, Newton’s rings,etc). All phenomena observed from the Earth or from the Earth’s atmosphere are the optical phenomena. If you want to prove lensing cause by gravity or “gravitational lensing”, you must show images/photos made from spacecraft, not from Hubble space telescope. (Optical phenomena).

Former NASA Physicist Disputes Einstein’s Relativity Theory

First, here’s a simple explanation of how relativity theory describes gravitational lensing:

Figure 7: A diagram depicting gravitational lensing, a phenomenon by which light bends around some objects in space. (NASA, ESA; J. Richard, CRAL; and J.-P. Kneib, LAM).

-The gravitational field of massive objects, such as stars and planets, bend rays of light that pass by them.
-Relativity theory includes the idea of space-time, a theory that states that time and space are interconnected. 
-The object’s gravitational field is said to alter space-time, causing the light we observe near the object to bend.

That’s not what actually happens, said Dowdye.

Instead, it works kind of like a mirage in the desert. When people have an illusion and think that they see water that isn’t actually there on the desert, it’s because of the way light is being bent, or refracted, in the hot desert air.

A temperature gradient exists, meaning over a given distance the air temperature varies. The hottest air is less dense, the coolest air is most dense. The photons (light particles) take a curved path between the sun and the viewer’s eye, because they take the clearest path through the air.

We assume light travels in a straight line, but it actually takes whatever path will take the least amount of time. This is why the air seems to wave or ripple like water in the desert.

So how does this work in terms of gravitational lensing?

Professor R. C. Gupta, India, on his paper ‘Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light’. (R.C.Gupta’s paper)
Maybe R.C.Gupta’s paper is not perfect, but that is vey interesting. He explains about lensing is reasonable; because observations is done using a telescope as an optical instrument.

Another forcing a claims:

Also, the Higgs boson “confirmed Einstein’s general relativity” (The Higgs boson). So, if general relativity is not valid, as well as Higgs Boson.

A physics professor said that given Einstein’s status as a popular icon, there are countless people who wish to prove him wrong, even among scientists with degrees to their names. Does that mean that one can not reveal Einstein’s fault, although the evidence and fact had been found that his theory is invalid?

I think, it doesn’t matter people wish to prove him wrong with the goal to their reputation or not, because many people will test the findings. If the findings are incorrect, it will further enhance Einstein’s status as a popular icon. If the findings are correct, it has very important for the future generations of scientists.

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