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2 April 2017


New measurement of solar gravitational deflection of radio signals using VLBI.RADIO observations using very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) can measure the deflection of electromagnetic radiation by the Sun’s gravitational field with an accuracy of better than 1 milliarcsecond, and can thus be used to test General Relativity.(

Between the two theories of gravitation, Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Einstein’s theory of gravity (general theory of relativity) both of theories can not both be true. Both can be wrong or only one can be right.

In this regard, I was interested to know some of the opinions of physicists, for example from the article in Nature: Arthur Eddington was innocent!
“One of the more recent victims of this revised thinking is the ‘confirmation’ of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, offered in 1919 by the British astronomer Arthur Eddington. Eddington reported observing the bending of light during a total eclipse, as predicted by Einstein. But some have claimed that he cooked his books to make sure that Einstein was vindicated over Newton, because Eddington had already decided that this must be so.
Now, even physicists who celebrate Einstein’s theory commonly charge Eddington with over-interpreting his data.
In his Brief History of Time, Stephen Hawking says of the result that: “Their measurement had been sheer luck, or a case of knowing the result they wanted to get.” Hawking reports the widespread view that the errors in the data were as big as the effect they were meant to probe. Some go further, saying that Eddington deliberately excluded data that didn’t agree with Einstein’s prediction.”(Arthur Eddington was innocent!)

And in the Medium, we read the opinion of Professor Brian Koberlain in the article: The Strangest Theory We Know Is True, After 99 years, Einstein’s greatest scientific achievement is undefeated.
“Using the equivalence principle, Einstein developed a gravitational theory even more strange than special relativity. In his theory the fabric of space and time can be bent and twisted by the presence and motion of masses. One of the first tests of the gravitational curvature of space was the deflection of starlight during a solar eclipse, first observed by Edenton in 1919. Eddington’s results supported Einstein’s model, but not very strongly. Given the radical approach of general relativity, Eddington results were initially disputed by some. But subsequent observations confirmed Einstein’s predictions.”(Prof.Brian Koberlain).

Somewhat surprising is the opinion of Sabine Hossenfelder, which is clearly blames Arthur Eddington.
“As history has it, Eddington original data actually wasn’t good enough to make that claim with certainty. His measurements had huge error bars due to bad weather and he also might have cherry-picked his data because he liked Einstein’s theory a little too much. Shame on him.” (Sabine Hossenfelder)

But finally most of them accepted Einstein’s theory of gravity, without rejected Newton’s theory of gravity. Sabine Hossenfelder tells us the reasons:
“By the 1990s, one didn’t have to wait for solar eclipses any more. Data from radio sources, such as distant pulsars, measured by very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) could now be analyzed for the effect of light deflection. In VLBI, one measures the time delay by which wave fronts from radio sources arrive at distant detectors that might be distributed all over the globe. The long baseline together with a very exact timing of the signal’s arrival allows one to then pinpoint very precisely where the object is located — or seems to be located. In 1991, Robertson, Carter & Dillinger confirmed to high accuracy the light deflection predicted by General Relativity by analyzing data from VLBI accumulated over 10 years.”
Einstein online website: “With repetitions of eclipse measurements over the next half century, astronomers were able to improve on the accuracy of these first results by only about a factor two, yielding a confirmation of general relativity to within about ten percent. The breakthrough came in 1967 with the realization that simultaneous measurements with a set of radio telescopes (especially, “Very Long Baseline Interferometry”) could be used to measure light deflection with much greater accuracy.”(
At the same time, and there are two conflicting theories, but both theories are considered to be true. Of course, it is something unusual happens in science.
How could it be happened in science?
Here my interest in this writing to finding the answer, and may be I’ve found the answer. What are the reasons that caused it happen, it is because the VLBI measurements can provide the data as if someone wants to get the result.
Wikipedia informs us some of the scientific results derived from VLBI include:
1.High resolution radio imaging of cosmic radio sources.
2.Imaging the surfaces of nearby stars at radio wavelengths (see also interferometry) — similar techniques have also been used to make infrared and optical images of stellar surfaces
3.Definition of the celestial reference frame
4.Motion of the Earth’s tectonic plates
5.Regional deformation and local uplift or subsidence.
6.Variations in the Earth’s orientation and length of day.
7.Maintenance of the terrestrial reference frame
8.Measurement of gravitational forces of the Sun and Moon on the Earth and the deep structure of the Earth
9.Improvement of atmospheric models
10.Measurement of the fundamental speed of gravity
11.The tracking of the Huygens probe as it passed through Titan’s atmosphere, allowing wind velocity measurements.

Let’s note point 1 and point 8. At point 1 High resolution radio imaging of cosmic radio sources, can be used to test general relativity as Letters to Nature-Nature 349, 768–770 (28 February 1991). Its mean Einstein’s gravity ‘nothing about force’ is true.
At point 8 Measurement of gravitational forces of the Sun and Moon on the Earth and the deep structure of the Earth. Its mean Newton Law of Gravitation is correct.
In this case, they can prove that both theories are true. But it can not happens in science, both theories can be wrong, but only one can be right.
Primary problem of general relativity
Actually, the primary problem of general relativity is not test of hypothesis, but the hypothesis itself. As widely known, Einstein hipothesis of general relativity is called ‘deflection of light by the Sun’. But, what’s the meaning of deflection of light (starlight) by the Sun? Let’s look at in figure 1, 2, and 3 below.

Figure 1: Deflection of Sunlight by Earth's atmosphere

Figure 2: Deflection of Sunlight and Starlight by Earth's atmosphere

Figure 3: Deflection of starlight

The three illustrations above give a simple explanation about the deflection of light: Sunlight and Starlight. In Figure 3, A is deflection of starlight by the Sun as seen from space by space telescope mounted on the spacecraft. B is deflection of starlight as seen from the Earth. It is not deflection of light by the Sun, but deflection of light by Earth’s atmosphere.
What then? The three illustrations above could explain as a simple explanation about invalidity of Einstein hypothesis on his idea of gravity (general relativity).

If someone says:"VLBI confirmed to high accuracy both Newton's gravity and Einstein's gravity", this is  something logical fallacies. Both theories can be wrong, but only one can be right. If someone says:"Einstein was right",  must be able to says: "Newton was wrong" and shows evidence. If not, that is useless.
Physicist Tom Van Flanderm gave an excellent example:
The Speed of Gravity: 


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