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26 Oktober 2014


Einstein ignored light refraction through the Earth's atmosphere when he desires used a method for validating his General Theory of Relativity in 1919.

Albert Einstein proposed three tests of the general relativity theory:
1.the perihelion precession of Mercury’s orbit.
2.the deflection of light by the Sun.
3.the gravitational redshift of light

Negligible difference between actual and apparent positions of star
( )

   In the letter to the London Times on November 28, 1919, he described the theory of relativity and thanked his English colleagues for their understanding and testing of his work. He also mentioned three classical tests with comments:
   "The chief attraction of the theory lies in its logical completeness. If a single one of the conclusions drawn from it proves wrong, it must be given up; to modify it without destroying the whole structure seems to be impossible." (

   The tests / proving method as suggested by Einstein was carried out by a team of English scientists led by Arthur Stanley Eddington. Based on data from the Royal Astronomical Society, Arthur Eddington aimed to the group of Hyade stars from the city of Oxford in England at the nights in the months of January and February 1919. After that, Eddington together with his team left for Principe Island in West of Africa, and aimed to the Hyade stars during the solar eclipse on the date of May 29, 1919 at the city of Roca Sundy.

   In the month of May 1919 the weather in Principe was not favourable because it was cloudy, and so was the time before the eclipse. However, Eddington succeeded in taking the photo of the solar eclipse taking place for 6 minutes 30 seconds. And the calculation output on light deviation by Arthur Eddington was 1.62 second arc, close to the Einstein’s calculation output of 1.75 second arc.
   The proving method for hypothesis as suggested by Einstein as the theory founder should not be able to be carried out, considering the fact that in scientific exposure in astronomy, the instant observation applies. It means, all calculations to determine the ‘true position’ and the ‘apparent position’ of a certain star at the sky is only applicable at a certain time and at a certain place on which such observation is performed.

One of Eddington’s photographs of the 1919 solar eclipse experiment, presented in his 1920 paper announcing its success (

   The observation on a star conducted twice from the places with different geographical positions will result the different height/altitude and azimuth of the star. The altitude and azimuth of a star indicates the position of the star at the time when the observation is performed. The altitude and azimuth of a star changes every time due to the daily movement of the said space objects.

All calculations to determine the true position and the apparent position of a certain star at the sky is only applicable at a certain time and at a certain place on which such observation is performed.

Celestial Sphere ( Bulatan Angkasa ) untuk observer di satu kota hanya berlaku untuk kota tersebut,  sedangkan koordinat bintang yang diamati juga hanya berlaku pada waktu pengamatan itu dilakukan.  

This figure illustrates that, depending on your latitude, some stars will be "circumpolar" and will never set. Remember: your latitude = the altitude of the north celestial pole. (

   Therefore, the proving method as conducted by Arthur Eddington, should not be able to be performed. Moreover, the observation / photo taking for the stars were performed twice with sufficiently long different interval of time.

Einstein calculated the level of deviation and predicted that for the stars observed being the closest to the sun, their deviation was about 1.75 second arc. 
The calculation output on light deviation by Sir Arthur Eddington was 1.62 second arc (1919 eclipse, from Principe Island ). 
The calculation output on light deviation by Andrew Crommelin and Charles Davidson :0.93 second arc. ( 1919 eclipse, from Sobral ). 
This very vivid difference was ignored as if the expedition team performing the measuring from Sobral never existed.

In astronomy, deflection of light is something very common, and not caused by gravity field of a massive object, but it occurs due to the light refraction, namely astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction .

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