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14 November 2016


".. for the stars observed being the closest to the Sun, their deviation was about 1.75 seconds of an arc." (Albert Einstein)

“….during totality on August 21, 2017 — although it will be close to midday — you’ll easily be able to see 4 planets with the unaided eye near the eclipsed sun!
In order of brightness, these planets will be Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Mercury. Mars is slightly brighter than Mercury, but so nearly the same in brightness that you probably won’t notice a difference.”(See 4 planets during 2017 solar eclipse).
At the 2017 solar eclipse, Monday, August 21, in USA, the bright star Regulus make a thrilling sight shinning near the Sun’s corona, this event is the best chance to test or re-examine Einstein’s general theory of relativity.

30 Oktober 2016


"Their measurement had been sheer luck, or a case of knowing the result they wanted to get, not an uncommon occurrence in science."(Stephen Hawking).

2 September 2016



The splendor of totality

You cannot completely prepare yourself for the sight of a total solar eclipse. When totality arrives, you will experience primal emotions and wonderment at the unspeakable beauty of the corona and the panoply of colors and light as you've never seen before. You will involuntarily scream, gasp, or perhaps cry at this astounding vision.

22 Juni 2016


Second Gravitational Wave Makes It Official: Merging Black Holes Don't Burst!

Yesterday, the LIGO collaboration announced the detection of a pair of merging black holes, a 14 solar mass black hole inspiraling and coalescing with an 8 solar mass black hole, only the second gravitational wave event ever seen. While some controversial evidence existed that the first black hole-black hole merger produced a gamma-ray burst, those results were hotly disputed, with advocates on both sides eagerly awaiting the results from the second merger. With the announcement yesterday, it became official: neither gamma-rays nor X-rays were seen, tipping the scales towards the long-awaited conclusion, merging black holes do not produce bursts of radiation.


NASA detected GRB

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected the very weak and brief burst of high-energy X-rays, consistent with a short gamma-ray burst (or GRB), less than half a second after LIGO registered GW150914. This is surprising — it was assumed that when black holes collide, they do so “cleanly,” according to a NASA news release, not producing any kind of electromagnetic trace. So are the two signals related to the same event? The timing makes it highly likely; there’s only a 0.2 percent chance that they occurred in the same patch of sky at the same time but belonged to two different high-energy phenomena.

“This is a tantalizing discovery with a low chance of being a false alarm, but before we can start rewriting the textbooks we’ll need to see more bursts associated with gravitational waves from black hole mergers,” said Valerie Connaughton, member of the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) team at the National Space, Science and Technology Center in Huntsville, Ala.

The majority of GRBs are believed to be created when massive stars implode after running out of fuel and then explode, forming black holes in their wake. These are known as “long GRBs.” The intense radiation — detected as a flash of gamma-rays and high-energy X-rays — originates from dying stars’ poles at the time of explosion. There is, however, a more mysterious type of GRB that is short period (less than 2 seconds) and possibly linked with black hole and neutron star mergers.

“With just one joint event, gamma rays and gravitational waves together will tell us exactly what causes a short GRB,” said Lindy Blackburn, a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and a member of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration. “There is an incredible synergy between the two observations, with gamma rays revealing details about the source’s energetics and local environment and gravitational waves providing a unique probe of the dynamics leading up to the event.”

The gravitational wave signal was generated by the rapid spiraling and collision of two black holes, an event that created the now-famous black hole “chirp.” But if indeed this Fermi detection is also of the same event, astrophysicists will have to figure out how this is possible. Black hole mergers aren’t supposed to generate significant quantities of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum unless there’s a quantity of gas close to the merging region. But it is thought that the vast majority of any gases surrounding the black hole binary would have disappeared long ago.

NASA Space Telescope Spies Gamma-ray Burst


Now we know, no doubt: general relativity has been wrong since the beginning, so:

LIGO's merging black holes don't burst, sorry, just experiment is made based on belief. It is seem nothing more than a case of knowing the result they wanted to get, and in accordance with LIGO's expert that said before - in Feruary 2016 : " I am certain, Einstein has always been right."

Einstein never predicts black hole, moreover, gravitational wave come from black holes merger. He didn’t believe in black hole. Einstein is The Reluctant Father of Black Hole.

In Einstein’s manuscript 1916 :”Two celestial bodies in orbit will generate ripples in spacetime”.LIGO’s gravitational waves nothing to do with Einstein. 

Two celestial bodies in orbit will generate ripples in space time yet to be proven. 

LIGO's merging black holes don't burst doesn’t confirm Albert Einstein’s general relativity.

What's wrong with general relativity?

Stop experiments based on belief and saying Einstein was right again. It was very embarrassing!

No doubt, general relativity has been wrong since the beginning.


21 Juni 2016


Einstein never predicts gravitational wave come from two black holes merger. He didn’t believe in black hole. Einstein is The Reluctant Father of Black Hole. In Einstein’s manuscript 1916 :”Two celestial bodies in orbit will generate ripples in spacetime”.LIGO’s gravitational waves nothing to do with Einstein.Two celestial bodies in orbit will generate ripples in space time yet to be proven. LIGO doesn’t confirm Albert Einstein’s general relativity.
Einstein’s manuscript 1916 :”Two celestial bodies in orbit will generate ripples in spacetime”

For only the second time in human history, gravitational waves have been directly detected. This time, the merger of two lower mass black holes, of 14 and 8 solar masses, inspiraling and coalescing together, left a signal of 27 orbits spanning more than a second in both twin LIGO detectors, a second unambiguous signal in less than four months’ time.

On September 14, 2015, less than 72 hours after beginning operations, the Advanced LIGO detectors in Washington and Louisiana shocked the world by detecting two large black holes — 36 and 29 solar masses — merging together. The ripples propagating through space were so intense that even from over a billion light years away, the tiny mirrors in the LIGO apparatus shifted by thousandths of the width of a proton, vibrating back and forth ever so slightly over the span of perhaps 200 milliseconds. After months of checking their results, they made the indisputable claim: they had detected gravitational waves for the first time. 101 years after Einstein’s general theory of relativity was proposed, it passed with flying colors its most delicate, intricate test.

The experiment of LIGO has not verified the Einstein’s theory of gravity.

Where Was the Source of Gravitational Waves? According to normal pressures of experiments, we should determine or observe the event of binary black hole merger which really happened in space by some methods at first. For example, the experiment observed optical after glow caused by the material around black holes in merger process. Suppose the speed of gravitational wave is the same as that of light. When the light reached the earth, gravitational waves also arrived and caused stripe changes in interferometers.

The problem was, did LIGO really observe binary black hole merger? The authors read the PRL paper of LIGO but find no word to say they had observed astronomical phenomena about binary black hole merger. They used the method of backward to deduce the event. Based on the signs detected in laser interferometers and the Einstein’s theory of gravity, by fitting them with computer, LIGO declared that the event happened in a distance galaxy 1.3 billion years ago.

Therefore, so-called binary black hole merger is only the result of computer simulation, rather than a really observed event in astronomy and physics. By using so-called matching filter method, LIGO declared to find gravitational waves and binary black hole merger from their waveform library which had been established in advance, rather than find them from sky.

According to the interpretation of LIGO, the experiments verified the gravitational wave theory of Einstein. However, what they observed were only two signs in laser interferometers, without really observing binary black hole merger and 3 solar mass being transformed into gravitational waves, how could they say that the gravitational wave theory of Einstein was verified?(

More than 100 years physicists around the world being misled by general relatity !

More than 100 years being misled by general relatity and just live in the world of experiments. Until now we still use Newton’s law of gravity, so far. Black holes and gravitatinal waves do not exist. Einstein’s gravity is nothing about force, it means nothing about energy …..

The problems of general relativity arise when you look at the Universe at very small or at very large scales. So, what’s wrong with general relativity?

In fact, first, general relativity is made based on thought experiment, not the real experiment. Secondly, Einstein’s thought experiments are incomprehensive, illogical, and misleading. Third, Einstein never proved general relativity. Fourth, Einstein ignored the refraction of light and the existing of celestial sphere, that’s why Einstein proposed the test for his hypothesis deflection of light by the Sun isn’t scientific and deeply wrong. Einstein’s proving method need to be examined more thoroughly and need to be taken seriously.

Every hypothesis should first be able to explain the experimental results in order to be taken seriously. But, what if the proving method of a hypothesis is not scientific but not to be taken seriously, althought the first experimental results was error? That is occur in the case of Einstein’s provng method for ‘ The Deflection of Light by the Sun ‘.

Reliable source:

“Einstein proposed therefore, that photographs be taken of the stars immediately bordering the darkened face of the sun during an eclipse and compared with photographs of those same stars made at another time.” (LincolnBarnett, The Universe and Dr. Einstein, London, June 1949, Preface by Albert Einstein Himself, page 78).

The celestial sphere is only applicable at a certain time and at a certain place on which such observation is performed. In scientific exposure of astronomy, the instant observation applies. It means, ‘that photographs be taken of the stars immediately bordering the darkened face of the sun during an eclipse and compared with photographs of those same stars made at another time ‘ isn’t scientific and deeply wrong.

General relativity has been wrong since the beginning. Deflection of light caused by refraction: i.e.astronomical refraction and terrestrial refraction, not gravity.

Actually error in the famous eclipse experiment of 1919, but F.W.Dyson writes: “It seems clear that the effect found must be attributed to the Sun’s gravitational field and not, for example, to the refraction by coronal matter” (F.W.Dyson, F.R.S, A Determination of the Deflection of Light by the Sun’s Gravitational Field, from Observations made at the Total Eclipse of May 29, 1919).

Nobel Committe in 1921 know about this error, that’s why Einstein never received Nobel Prize for relativity.

The new finding about Einstein’s proving method that isn’t scientific and ignored refraction of light, in accordance  with— by coincidence — the invention of Professor R. C. Gupta, India, on his paper ‘Bending of Light Near a Star and Gravitational Red/Blue Shift: Alternative Explanation Based on Refraction of Light.'


14 Juni 2016


I heartily recommend this book, and please stop saying Einstein was right again 


Marianne Freiberger
PlusMathsOrg, July 23, 2014

Albert Einstein is an icon and for good reason. His general theory of relativity, which describes the force of gravity, was an intellectual tour de force. Not only were his ideas entirely new, they have also stood the test of time. Despite this success, some physicists are doing what many would consider sacrilege: they are tinkering with the theory, producing modified versions of it. But why?

22 Mei 2016


Redshift caused by refraction, not gravity

It is quite clear that deflection of starlight caused by refraction, not gravity. The term of gravitational redshift as we know is the term in the frame deflection of starlight by the Sun or light bending by gravity field of massive object.

15 Mei 2016



Clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth's surface. It is not caused by gravity, but by air density of atmosphere. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.
Tentu saja, pesawatnya juga bergerak lebih cepat!

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation).

By volume, dry air contains 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen,0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. Air content and atmospheric pressure vary at different layers, and air suitable for use in photosynthesis by terrestrial plants and breathing of terrestrial animals is found only in Earth's troposphere and in artificial atmospheres.

The atmosphere has a mass of about 5.15×1018 kg, three quarters of which is within about 11 km (6.8 mi; 36,000 ft) of the surface. The atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km (62 mi), or 1.57% of Earth's radius, is often used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km (75 mi). Several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition.


Hafele-Keating Experiment in 1971

Hafele and Keating aboard a commercial airliner, 
with two of the atomic clocks and a stewardess.

The Hafele–Keating experiment was a test of the theory of relativity. In October 1971, Joseph C. Hafele, a physicist, and Richard E. Keating, an astronomer, took four cesium-beam atomic clocks aboard commercial airliners. They flew twice around the world, first eastward, then westward, and compared the clocks against others that remained at the United States Naval Observatory. When reunited, the three sets of clocks were found to disagree with one another, and their differences were consistent with the predictions of special and general relativity.

General relativity predicts an additional effect, in which an increase in gravitational potential due to altitude speeds the clocks up. That is, clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth's surface. This effect has been confirmed in many tests of general relativity, such as the Pound–Rebka experiment and Gravity Probe A. In the Hafele–Keating experiment, there was a slight increase in gravitational potential due to altitude that tended to speed the clocks back up. Since the aircraft flew at roughly the same altitude in both directions, this effect was approximately the same for the two planes, but nevertheless it caused a difference in comparison to the clocks on the ground.



Clocks at higher altitude tick faster than clocks on Earth's surface. It is not caused by gravity, but by air density of atmosphere. Closer to the earth surface, the air is denser compared to the density of the air layer above it. The density is getting looser or weaker when it is getting higher.

It is has been known in traveling on an airplane. At higher altitude the density of amosphere is getting looser or weaker, and less of friction on an airplane.  Traveling in weaker density of atmosphere an airplane can move faster than in denser atmosphere.


7 Mei 2016


“What should you do when you find you have made a mistake like that? Some people never admit that they are wrong and continue to find new, and often mutually inconsistent, arguments to support their case “ (Stephen Hawking)


Isaac Newton thought the influence of gravity was instantaneous, but Einstein assumed it travelled at the speed of light and built this into his 1915 general theory of relativity.

Light-speed gravity means that if the Sun suddenly disappeared from the centre of the Solar System, the Earth would remain in orbit for about 8.3 minutes – the time it takes light to travel from the Sun to the Earth. Then, suddenly feeling no gravity, Earth would shoot off into space in a straight line.

But the assumption of light-speed gravity has come under pressure from brane world theories, which suggest there are extra spatial dimensions rolled up very small. Gravity could take a short cut through these extra dimensions and so appear to travel faster than the speed of light – without violating the equations of general relativity.

But how can you measure the speed of gravity? One way would be to detect gravitational waves, little ripples in space-time that propagate out from accelerating masses. But no one has yet managed to do this.

Kopeikin found another way. He reworked the equations of general relativity to express the gravitational field of a moving body in terms of its mass, velocity and the speed of gravity. If you could measure the gravitational field of Jupiter, while knowing its mass and velocity, you could work out the speed of gravity.
Bending waves

The opportunity to do this arose in September 2002, when Jupiter passed in front of a quasar that emits bright radio waves. Fomalont and Kopeikin combined observations from a series of radio telescopes across the Earth to measure the apparent change in the quasar’s position as the gravitational field of Jupiter bent the passing radio waves.

From that they worked out that gravity does move at the same speed as light. Their actual figure was 0.95 times light speed, but with a large error margin of plus or minus 0.25.

Their result, announced on Tuesday at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, should help narrow down the possible number of extra dimensions and their sizes.

Gravitational waves are not part of the electromagnetic waves. Gravitational waves and electromagnetic waves are quite different. Measuring the speed of gravity in September 2002 by Kopeikin - radiowaves from quasar are bent by Jupiter's gravity and focused into a ring-was wrong:

1.There is no evidence radiowaves are bent by Jupiter's gravity.

2.Einstein's general theory of relativity was wrong. Light/electromagnetic waves are bent by refraction, not gravity.

3.Kopeikin’s experiment was wrong: It is Not the speed of gravity, but the propagation of radiowaves from quasar or the speed of light.

Question arise: What’s wrong with gravitational waves discovery by LIGO in 11 February 2016?

What new discoveries would have blown Einstein’s mind away if he would be transported to today’s era?
1.The Modern of Astronomy / Astronomical Navigation and the use of Nautical Almanac, can prove his special and general relativity was totally wrong, his proving method for ‘defelction of light by the Sun’ is not scientific and deeply wrong, the famous Arthur Eddington’s eclipse experiment of 1919 actually was error, and he realizes that’s why he never received Nobel Prize for his relativity.
He will realizes many of physicists make a mistake that was caused by his theory, and there are many unsolved mysteries in physycs. Many discovery in modern physics was wrong: measuring the speed of gravity, gavitational waves ..
He will realizes that he failed not only single one but three in classical tests.
2.Internet and google search can make 15 years old high school student become more genius than genius in the era of his life. (QuoraCom).

Sorry, Einstein, Kopeikin, LIGO, and all Einstein’s supporters those who said: “ I am certain, Einstein has always been right!”

Read on Blog: PhysicsIdiot


1 Mei 2016


The life time of Minkowski and his former student Albert Einstein  before the modern astronomy arise. They do not understand about 'The Space and Time', namely The Celestial Sphere, one of the fundamental concepts in the modern astronomy. They knowing not about Nautical Almanac as "holy book" in science of modern astronomy, that says refraction of light of celestial bodies can not be ignored. 
That is why, in Special and General Theory of Relativity Albert Einstein ignored the celestial sphere and refraction of light. 
A theory of four-dimensional space–time or 4D known as the "Minkowski spacetime" was misleading. There are no 4D, but 3D +1D in Modern Astronomy: Celestial Sphere Coordinate System. Einstein general theory of relativity  was totally wrong.(GSA)

“Einstein’s Law of Gravitation contains nothing about force. It describes the behaviour of objects in  a gravitational field – the planets, for example – not in terms of ‘ attraction ‘ but simply in terms of the paths they follow. To Einstein, gravitation is simple part of inertia; the movement of the stars and the planets arise from their inherent inertia; and the courses they follow are determined by the metric properties of space – or, more properly speaking,  the metric properties of the space-time continuum “  (Lincoln Barnett,  The Universe and Dr. Einstein, London, June 1949,  page 72 ).

26 April 2016


By 1930, other cosmologists, including Eddington, Willem de Sitter, and Einstein, had concluded that the static (non-evolving) models of the universe they had worked on for many years were unsatisfactory. Furthermore, Edwin Hubble, using the world’s largest telescope at Mt. Wilson in California, had shown that the distant galaxies all appeared to be receding from us at speeds proportional to their distances. It was at this point that Lemaître drew Eddington’s attention to his earlier work, in which he had derived and explained the relation between the distance and the recession velocity of galaxies. Eddington at once called the attention of other cosmologists to Lemaître’s 1927 paper and arranged for the publication of an English translation. Together with Hubble’s observations, Lemaître’s paper convinced the majority of astronomers that the universe was indeed expanding, and this revolutionized the study of cosmology.

A year later, Lemaître explored the logical consequences of an expanding universe and boldly proposed that it must have originated at a finite point in time. If the universe is expanding, he reasoned, it was smaller in the past, and extrapolation back in time should lead to an epoch when all the matter in the universe was packed together in an extremely dense state. Appealing to the new quantum theory of matter, Lemaître argued that the physical universe was initially a single particle—the “primeval atom” as he called it—which disintegrated in an explosion, giving rise to space and time and the expansion of the universe that continues to this day. This idea marked the birth of what we now know as Big Bang cosmology. (George Lemaitre)

Theory of The Very Beginning Universe Before Big Bang 

is the theory of Blank, Empty, like the secret in the story of Kung Fu Panda, and everything in the world is vibration.

Professor Ethan Siegel:The Biggest Question About The Beginning of Universe

George Lemaitre's primeval atom, where does it come from?


23 April 2016


How could there be 'A Standard' in physics but does not explain gravity?

In the Standar Model Physics 'nothing can travel  faster than light' is misleading. In the events of starlight at a night time, what you see in every day life is the apparent position of star, it is not true positon of star. .It is because starlight slow down by dust particle / Earth's atmosphere. But in the events of tides by the Moon, gravity do not affected by dust particles in the atmosphere of Earth and Moon. It is simple and clear up: Gravity can travel faster than light. So, the speed of Gravity is the speed limit in the universe (The Evidence 2016).

What's Classical Physics All About?

Classical physics is the physics of everyday pheonomena of nature, those we can observe with our unaided senses. It deals primarily with mass, force and motion. While its roots go back to the earliest times, to the Ancient Greeks such as Aristotle and Archimedes, it later developed into a cohesive system with the contributions of Galileo, Kepler and Newton. Classical physics achieved phenomental success, as the Calculus of Newton and Leibniz gave it the tools to tackle even even problems not imagined by its pioneers.

Around 1900, give or take a decade, surprising new experimental evidence, primarily about atoms and molecules, showed us that these small-scale phenomena behave in ways not anticipated by classical theory. This ushered in a new era called "modern" physics. New laws and methodology were developed to deal with the rapidly expanding experimental evidence. Relativity and quantum mechanics added new tools to the study of nature. These did not make classical physics "wrong", for the old laws were working just as they always had, within their limited scope—which was the study of large objects (not atomic scale ones) moving relatively slowly (not near the speed of light).

So classical physics is still the starting point for learning about physics, and constitutes the bulk of the material in most introductory textbooks. It is the theory underlying the natural processes we observe everyday. It is the key to understanding the motion of pulleys, machines, projectiles and planets. It helps us understand geology, chemistry, astronomy, weather, tides and other natural phenomena. 

Let's look at the key ideas of classical physics as they developed historically.

    1.Motion. The ancient greek philosophers thought a lot about motion. What makes things move? Why doesn't a thrown projectile move forever? What causes it to stop? Why does a stone fall when we drop it? The theories they invented to account for these things are now forgotten except to historians of science. But they were asking the right questions.

    2.The Heavens. All early civilizations paid attention to the motion of stars, sun, moon and planets in the sky. The regularity and predictability of these motions was recognized very early. Most thought these motions were special, having causes quite distinct from the causes of earthly motions of projectiles. Aristotle accepted this difference as a fundamental principle.

   3.The Physics of Aristotle. Aristotle's physics (a synthesis of ideas from many Greek philosophers) accepted the fixity (immobility) of the Earth. The Earth was assumed to be the center of the universe. The Greek theory of matter postulated that everything on Earth was made up of just four elements: earth, water, air and fire, and these had settled from an initial chaotic condition to a relativly stable situation with earth being at the lowest level (being heaviest), water above the earth, air above that, and finally there was a shell of invisible fire above everything. This hierarchy represented the four elements in their "natural place". The evidence for fire being above everything was the fact that fire leapt upward, and like all the elements, was seeking its "natural place" in the scheme of things. So unsupported things made of earthen materials fell down toward the earth. Water flowed down mountain streams to the oceans, and hot air balloons moved upward into the air.

    Motion of things toward their natural place was called "natural" motion. Any motions that displaced things from their natural place was called "violent" motion. Natural motion happened for no other reason than the body's "desire" to get to its natural place. Violent motions were caused by forces. Natural and violent motions were mutually exclusive and could not occcur simultaneously. When a projectile was thrown (by action of a force) it moved in a straight line for a while (violent motion), until it used up the motion it had been given. Then it immediately moved in a straight line downward (natural motion), toward Earth. All motions on Earth were made up of a succession of straight line motions.

    4.The Ptolemaic Universe. Claudius Ptolemy (about 85 - about 165 CE), astronomer, synthesized earlier ideas about planetary motion into a geocentric (Earth-centered) model in which the sun and all the planets moved in circles around the Earth. Why circles? Because the Pythagorean numerology had declared circles the most perfect geometric figure, and Aristotelian physics declared everything outside of the earh to be in some sense "perfect". So all celestial motions were considered to be circles, or a superposition of circles. But naked-eye astronomers had accumulated rather good data on planetary positions over time, so Ptolemy's system had to be a complicated combination of circles (cycles and epicycles) to account for the data well. It did work, but it did only one job, predicting planet's positions in the sky, and it had some problems dealing with Mercury and Venus.

    5.Scholasticism. The Catholic Church dominated education in Europe. It tried to unite science and religion into a unified system of thought. St. Thomas Aquinus was one of the most visible in this effort, and the result was a system consisting of Aristotelian physics and Christian theology, called "Scholasticism." It accepted the Greek four element theory, the immobility of the Earth, Aristotle's physics and the Ptolemaic system. All of this was considered church dogma, to be accepted without question. This was the "science" taught in the schools when Galileo was at the University.

    6.The Copernican Revolution. Nicolas Copernicus (or Koppernigk; Polish: Kopernik) (1473 – 1543) is credited with the demise of the Ptolemaic planetary system. Copernicus' heliocentric (Sun-centered) model assumed that the Sun (not the Earth) was the center of the solar system, with all the planets moving in circles about the Sun, and Earth's moon moving in a circle around Earth. This model kept the idea of epicycles (it had to to account for observations), but fewer of them. Exactly six fewer—those planetary epicycles that had identical periods of 365+ days. (That's a clue to what's going on.) The Catholic Church denounced the idea, and banned Copernicus' book de Revolutionibus (1543), but Copernicus had died before the controversy erupted. Martin Luther also denounced the idea. Galileo publicly championed Copernicus' heliocentric model, so he took heat for it.

    7.The Experimental Revolution. Though the ideas of the Greeks, as expressed by Aristotle (384 BCE–322 BCE), persisted until the time of Galileo, there were many who seriously questioned much of it, and even did experiments to show that Aristotle was wrong. John Philoponus (490–570) (John the Grammarian) experimentally disproved Aristotle's assertion that heavy bodies fall faster than lighter ones. This experiment (dropping heavy and light balls from a height) was repeated by others, including Simon Stevin (1548/49–1620). Their work constituted a gradual revolution in how physics was done, one that showed the importance of deliberate experiments designed to study natural processes. Previous physics had mostly relied on passive observation of phenomena. One exception was the work of the Greek mechanicians, such as Archimedes, Ctestibius and Hero(n).

    8.Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) challenged Aristotelian physics with vigor, and suffered the consequences of arguing against the Catholic Church's Aristotelian teachings about physics. He showed that freely falling bodies accelerate (increase their speed). He made use of his "principle of superposition" to analyze motion of projectiles. He also effectively used this method of argument to explain why objects of different mass fall in the same way. His telescopic discoveries in astronomy are well known: four moons of Jupiter, sunspots, craters of the moon, and much more. Galileo is sometimes called the "father of experimental physics", but as we noted above, the experimental spirit arose earlier. Still, Galileo deserves credit for his total commitment to the experimental methods that paved the way for others.

    9.Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) spent many years trying to understand the reasons for the motions of planets, especially the orbit of Mars. Along the way he tried, and abandoned many hypotheses (proposed models) of the planetary system. His early guesses were in the "magical" or "mystical" tradition of astrology and numerology, but he was objective enough to realize that those approaches were not useful. His final, correct, solution was purely mathematical, his three laws of planetary motion. One major value of this model is that it introduced elliptical orbits for planets, doing away with all of the epicyles and other gimmicks of Ptolemy's and Copernicus' models.

    9.The Newtonian Revolution. Isaac Newton (1643 [1642 O.S.]–1727) knew the work of these pioneers of experimental science, and he sought to develop a larger and more comprehensive synthesis of their work, one that would unify the motions of things near Earth (falling bodies, projectiles) with the motions of planets in the heavens. He achieved this only after he invented mathematical tools to deal with the problem, tools that we now know as calculus. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646–1716) invented another form of calculus at about the same time, one that was later found to be mathematically equivalent to Newton's version. Today calculus notation combines contributions of both men. Newton's solution to the problem of motion was his three laws of motion, combined with his universal gravitation theory. These introduced a refined definition of force, giving precise meaning to force and relating it, through his famous equation F = ma, to mass and acceleration. Newton's synthesis of these ideas is considered the first important theory in physics, and Newton may be justifiably called the first theoretical physicist. However you charactize his work, it set the standard and goal for physics to this day.

    10.Newton's style. Newton's theory changed the way scientists thought of nature. It introduced a view of force that many found hard to swallow. The idea that the force due to gravity could act between material bodies even at a distance, without them touching each other and without anything between them—well, that seemed an "occult" idea to some. Newton was pressured to explain "why" gravity worked that way. Newton declined to do that saying "I make no hypotheses." He was using the word hypothesis to mean "conjecture" or "explanation". He was content to simply describe how his theory worked, not why. Even though he was a deeply religious man, and even did alchemy and numerology, he wisely never mentions (nor uses) religious, magical or mystical ideas in his writings about physics. This is a style most scientists still follow in their work.

    11.The Mechanical Universe. Newton's mechanics presented a view of nature that was dominated by objects moving under the influence of forces. This view was soon applied to all sorts of phenomena, from the collision of billiard balls to the motions of mechanical parts in machines. It viewed everything as having underlying mechanical interactions. Once you knew the positions of bodies and the forces acting on them you could (using mathematics) predict what they would do as time goes on. Newton's mechanics pictured the universe as a huge clockwork, all of its component parts obeying Newton's laws. Those of religious inclination supposed that this meant that God devised those laws, created matter and then let the laws take over. The clockwork of the universe could then run forever without further attention, strictly following Newton's laws. What room did this leave for miracles? What use was prayer? In this universe, do we really have free will? It was a deterministic view of the universe. Those philosophical questions are still debated today, but physics goes on without troubling itself about philosophical questions, which are considered outside of its domain.

    12.Conservation Laws. In this short space I can't do justice to the "discovery" of the conservation laws of energy, momentum and angular momentum. These arose from the question of how best to characterize motion of a body. Should it be a quantity dependent on velocity (mv, called momentum) or should it be dependent on the square of the velocity (mv2, called "vis viva")? It turned out that both were necessary for a complete description of motion, and the vis viva morphed into kinetic energy, mv2/2. Finally we learned that in closed systems, total energy within the system remains constant (is conserved). Earlier we had learned that in such systems momentum is conserved, and so is angular momentum. In fact Kepler's third law anticipated the conservation of momentum, and one of Galileo's laws of motion anaticipated the conservation of energy. Nowadays we know that all conservation laws arise from the geometry of the universe, from symmetries of a physical system's geometric properties under certain kinds of transformation, translation in space, time, or rotation. It now appears that the conservation laws are the most fundamental and powerful laws of the universe, from which many other major laws may be derived. They have withstood all of the advances and revolutions of physics described below.

    13.Successes of Newton's Mechanics. One thing we expect of a good theory is that it suggests directions for further investigation, and that it is applicable to new information that comes along. One major success of Newton's mechanics was the kinetic theory of gases. By modeling gases as very tiny, perfectly elastic particles zipping around at high speeds, and colliding with the walls of their container, the empirical gas laws were found to be derivable from Newton's laws. For example, from Newton's laws you can derive the famous "ideal-gas law" PV = nRT, relating pressure, volume, amount of gas, the gas constant and gas temperature. By relaxing the "idealized" conditions to allow larger particles, and occasional collision of particles with each other one could even do better at modeling real gases and deriving their laws, in agreement with experiment.

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What is gravity? 

Gravity is a Force in accordance with Isaac Newton's gravity,  the force that attracts a body towards the centre of the earth, or towards any other physical body having mass.Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

And let's add a few words to them to clear up:.Gravity is a force due to the effects of well balanced universe, and gravity is a force to maintain the well balanced of the Universe

How did our universe get to be so homogenous, beautiful and special ? Gravity is the builders the balance of universe.

How did our planet and atmosphere get to be so regular ? The formation of Earth’s atmosphere was caused by Earth’s gravity. Earth’s gravity is the builders of Earth’s atmosphere. Planet’s gravity is the builders of planet’s atmosphere.

Where Does Gravity Come From?

It is not impossible energy for Earth's gravity come from Earth's Radiation, The earth's radiation in this case is - all of the radiation / Earth's energy - including energy that come from earth's magnetism, and in the frame aether exist, because gravity itself  is the clue for the existing of undetectable of aether. Clear up : Gravity as evidence the existing of luminiferous aether,or ether.   In fact, Earth received energy in the form of radiation from the Sun. For the Earth to remain in balance the energy coming into and leaving the Earth must equal.

Earth's gravity come from Earth's energy, the energy of the  Earth's come from The Sun

The Certainty Principle

The certainty principle (2005) allowed to generalize and unify both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). It turned out to be applicable to any quantum systems, including relativistic quantum fields. One can even suppose, that it will finally turn out to be more fundamental than quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

In the frame of the orthodox quantum theory the certainty principle can be considered as a mathematical theorem. Exactly this approach is assumed as a basis in this review. And with it the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation are derived as consequences of the certainty principle. Another interesting consequence appears to be a simple uncertainty relation for angle and angular momentum, which, nevertheless, was not known before.

To wide extent, the certainty principle is not only a mathematical theorem, but also a gnoseological principle. This principle substantially complements the philosophy of quantum mechanics.

The Principle of Polarity

“Everything is Dual; everything has poles; everything has its pair of opposites; like and unlike are the same; opposites are identical in nature, but different in degree; extremes meet; all truths are but half-truths; all paradoxes may be reconciled.” — The Kybalion

While THE ALL is the totality of existence, there exists within it polarity. While this illustrates how everything is still ONE, it does seem to also validate our everyday human experiences. Here we come to the experience we have of hot and cold, hard and soft, fast and slow, and all manor of opposites that are actually identical. It is by degrees that these seeming opposites are separated.

Looking at a thermometer, at what degree does it change from hot to cold? Each among us has some arbitrary point we would say it has gone from hot to cold, but it is all temperature. The continuum in which one end is hot and the other is cold and the experience we have at any given moment is somewhere in between. This is the case with all opposites, they are not actually separate, but poles upon the same continuum.

Science would say that there is temperature, mass, velocity, et al; which is an attempt at naming the continuum. Hot and cold is temperature, light and heavy is mass, slow and fast is velocity. Even in the contemporary, it has been shown to be true, even if it may not have been expressed in these exact terms.

The Laws of Reality

Viewing waves in the sea and on the beach, is a very interesting sight if at that time, we thinking about how physics-gravity in fluid dynamics-work there.

Waves in the sea moving up and down driven by the wind, and the pull of Earth’s gravity looks so beautifully to restore the balance of sea water.

A poet would probably be beautiful to describe in words, how the gravity waves work -will be like the hands of a mother who did not want his son away from her-by strong gusts of wind-and pulled back his son in his arms.

A wonderful experience, and it is real, it can be seen by anyone, and can be proven by anyone-that a force of gravity exists -how could trust to someone who says ‘gravity nothing about force’ … although that said it was known as a genius and great scientists in the world


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